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PPIC Statewide Survey: Californians and Their Government,Teste a sua sorte!

WebWhen producing the final binary, GCC only applies link-time optimizations to those files that contain bytecode. Therefore, you can mix and match object files and libraries with GIMPLE bytecodes and final object code. GCC automatically selects which files to optimize in LTO mode and which files to link without further processing Web- This is (and always has been) an option in the blue menu after your puzzle is created. Watch our Videos! - Learn many tips with a clickable contents on YouTube (Opens in new window). Crossword Puzzle Maker How-To and FAQ's New Image and Clue Functions WebWhy do we use it? It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using 'Content here, content here', making it look like readable English Web01/03/ · Despite, and perhaps because of its amorphous nature, the term 'academic success' is one of the most widely used constructs in educational research and assessment within higher education WebIntroduction ¶. The LLVM code representation is designed to be used in three different forms: as an in-memory compiler IR, as an on-disk bitcode representation (suitable for fast loading by a Just-In-Time compiler), and as a human ... read more

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Percentages may not add up to due to rounding. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Gavin Newsom is handling his job as governor of California? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? Do you think things in California are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? Thinking about your own personal finances—would you say that you and your family are financially better off, worse off, or just about the same as a year ago?

Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline-to-state or independent voter? Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican? Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party?

Which one of the seven state propositions on the November 8 ballot are you most interested in? Initiative Constitutional Amendment and Statute. It allows in-person sports betting at racetracks and tribal casinos, and requires that racetracks and casinos that offer sports betting to make certain payments to the state—such as to support state regulatory costs. The fiscal impact is increased state revenues, possibly reaching tens of millions of dollars annually.

Some of these revenues would support increased state regulatory and enforcement costs that could reach the low tens of millions of dollars annually. If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 26? Initiative Constitutional Amendment. It allows Indian tribes and affiliated businesses to operate online and mobile sports wagering outside tribal lands.

It directs revenues to regulatory costs, homelessness programs, and nonparticipating tribes. Some revenues would support state regulatory costs, possibly reaching the mid-tens of millions of dollars annually. If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 27? Initiative Statute. It allocates tax revenues to zero-emission vehicle purchase incentives, vehicle charging stations, and wildfire prevention. If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 30?

Do you agree or disagree with these statements? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Joe Biden is handling his job as president? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way Alex Padilla is handling his job as US Senator?

Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way Dianne Feinstein is handling her job as US Senator? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the US Congress is handling its job?

Do you think things in the United States are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? How satisfied are you with the way democracy is working in the United States?

Are you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not too satisfied, or not at all satisfied? These days, do you feel [rotate] [1] optimistic [or] [2] pessimistic that Americans of different political views can still come together and work out their differences? What is your opinion with regard to race relations in the United States today? Would you say things are [rotate 1 and 2] [1] better , [2] worse , or about the same than they were a year ago?

When it comes to racial discrimination, which do you think is the bigger problem for the country today—[rotate] [1] People seeing racial discrimination where it really does NOT exist [or] [2] People NOT seeing racial discrimination where it really DOES exist?

Next, Next, would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list, rotate order top to bottom]. Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics—a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none?

Mark Baldassare is president and CEO of the Public Policy Institute of California, where he holds the Arjay and Frances Fearing Miller Chair in Public Policy.

He is a leading expert on public opinion and survey methodology, and has directed the PPIC Statewide Survey since He is an authority on elections, voter behavior, and political and fiscal reform, and the author of ten books and numerous publications.

Before joining PPIC, he was a professor of urban and regional planning in the School of Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine, where he held the Johnson Chair in Civic Governance.

He has conducted surveys for the Los Angeles Times , the San Francisco Chronicle , and the California Business Roundtable. He holds a PhD in sociology from the University of California, Berkeley. Dean Bonner is associate survey director and research fellow at PPIC, where he coauthors the PPIC Statewide Survey—a large-scale public opinion project designed to develop an in-depth profile of the social, economic, and political attitudes at work in California elections and policymaking.

He has expertise in public opinion and survey research, political attitudes and participation, and voting behavior. Before joining PPIC, he taught political science at Tulane University and was a research associate at the University of New Orleans Survey Research Center. He holds a PhD and MA in political science from the University of New Orleans.

Rachel Lawler is a survey analyst at the Public Policy Institute of California, where she works with the statewide survey team. In that role, she led and contributed to a variety of quantitative and qualitative studies for both government and corporate clients.

She holds an MA in American politics and foreign policy from the University College Dublin and a BA in political science from Chapman University. Deja Thomas is a survey analyst at the Public Policy Institute of California, where she works with the statewide survey team.

Prior to joining PPIC, she was a research assistant with the social and demographic trends team at the Pew Research Center. In that role, she contributed to a variety of national quantitative and qualitative survey studies. She holds a BA in psychology from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. This survey was supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F.

Ruben Barrales Senior Vice President, External Relations Wells Fargo. Mollyann Brodie Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Bruce E. Cain Director Bill Lane Center for the American West Stanford University. Jon Cohen Chief Research Officer and Senior Vice President, Strategic Partnerships and Business Development Momentive-AI.

Joshua J. Dyck Co-Director Center for Public Opinion University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Lisa García Bedolla Vice Provost for Graduate Studies and Dean of the Graduate Division University of California, Berkeley. Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley. Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Professor Sol Price School of Public Policy University of Southern California.

Carol S. Larson President Emeritus The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Lisa Pitney Vice President of Government Relations The Walt Disney Company. Robert K. Ross, MD President and CEO The California Endowment. Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento. A volatile load or store may have additional target-specific semantics. Volatile operations may use addresses which do not point to memory like MMIO registers.

This means the compiler may not use a volatile operation to prove a non-volatile access to that address has defined behavior. The allowed side-effects for volatile accesses are limited. If a non-volatile store to a given address would be legal, a volatile operation may modify the memory at that address.

A volatile operation may not modify any other memory accessible by the module being compiled. A volatile operation may not call any code in the current module.

In general without target specific context , the address space of a volatile operation may not be changed. Different address spaces may have different trapping behavior when dereferencing an invalid pointer. The compiler may assume execution will continue after a volatile operation, so operations which modify memory or may have undefined behavior can be hoisted past a volatile operation.

As an exception to the preceding rule, the compiler may not assume execution will continue after a volatile store operation. This restriction is necessary to support the somewhat common pattern in C of intentionally storing to an invalid pointer to crash the program.

In the future, it might make sense to allow frontends to control this behavior. IR-level volatile loads and stores cannot safely be optimized into llvm. memcpy or llvm. memmove intrinsics even when those intrinsics are flagged volatile. Similarly, IR-level volatile loads and stores cannot change from integer to floating-point or vice versa. Platforms may rely on volatile loads and stores of natively supported data width to be executed as single instruction.

For example, in C this holds for an l-value of volatile primitive type with native hardware support, but not necessarily for aggregate types.

The frontend upholds these expectations, which are intentionally unspecified in the IR. The LLVM IR does not define any way to start parallel threads of execution or to register signal handlers. For a more informal introduction to this model, see the LLVM Atomic Instructions and Concurrency Guide. Note that program order does not introduce happens-before edges between a thread and signals executing inside that thread. For the purposes of this section, initialized globals are considered to have a write of the initializer which is atomic and happens before any other read or write of the memory in question.

For each byte of a read R, R byte may see any write to the same byte, except:. R returns the value composed of the series of bytes it read. This implies that some bytes within the value may be undef without the entire value being undef.

Note that in cases where none of the atomic intrinsics are used, this model places only one restriction on IR transformations on top of what is required for single-threaded execution: introducing a store to a byte which might not otherwise be stored is not allowed in general. Specifically, in the case where another thread might write to and read from an address, introducing a store can change a load that may see exactly one write into a load that may see multiple writes.

Atomic instructions cmpxchg , atomicrmw , fence , atomic load , and atomic store take ordering parameters that determine which other atomic instructions on the same address they synchronize with. For a simpler introduction to the ordering constraints, see the LLVM Atomic Instructions and Concurrency Guide. The default LLVM floating-point environment assumes that floating-point instructions do not have side effects. Results assume the round-to-nearest rounding mode.

No floating-point exception state is maintained in this environment. Therefore, there is no attempt to create or preserve invalid operation SNaN or division-by-zero exceptions. The benefit of this exception-free assumption is that floating-point operations may be speculated freely without any other fast-math relaxations to the floating-point model.

Code that requires different behavior than this should use the Constrained Floating-Point Intrinsics. LLVM IR floating-point operations fneg , fadd , fsub , fmul , fdiv , frem , fcmp , phi , select and call may use the following flags to enable otherwise unsafe floating-point transformations.

Use-list directives encode the in-memory order of each use-list, allowing the order to be recreated. Use-list directives may appear at function scope or global scope. They are not instructions, and have no effect on the semantics of the IR. The source filename string is set to the original module identifier, which will be the name of the compiled source file when compiling from source through the clang front end, for example.

It is then preserved through the IR and bitcode. This is currently necessary to generate a consistent unique global identifier for local functions used in profile data, which prepends the source file name to the local function name. The LLVM type system is one of the most important features of the intermediate representation.

Being typed enables a number of optimizations to be performed on the intermediate representation directly, without having to do extra analyses on the side before the transformation. A strong type system makes it easier to read the generated code and enables novel analyses and transformations that are not feasible to perform on normal three address code representations.

The function type can be thought of as a function signature. It consists of a return type and a list of formal parameter types. The return type of a function type is a void type or first class type — except for label and metadata types.

Optionally, the parameter list may include a type Variable argument functions can access their arguments with the variable argument handling intrinsic functions. The first class types are perhaps the most important. Values of these types are the only ones which can be produced by instructions. The integer type is a very simple type that simply specifies an arbitrary bit width for the integer type desired.

Any bit width from 1 bit to 2 23 about 8 million can be specified. The number of bits the integer will occupy is specified by the N value. The binary format of half, float, double, and fp correspond to the IEEE specifications for binary16, binary32, binary64, and binary respectively. The operations allowed on it are quite limited. Only few intrinsics are allowed: stride load and store, zero and dot product. No instruction is allowed for this type.

There are no arguments, arrays, pointers, vectors or constants of this type. The operations allowed on it are quite limited: parameters and return values, load and store, and bitcast. There are no arrays, vectors or constants of this type. The pointer type ptr is used to specify memory locations. Pointers are commonly used to reference objects in memory. Pointer types may have an optional address space attribute defining the numbered address space where the pointed-to object resides.

For example, ptr addrspace 5 is a pointer to address space 5. In addition to integer constants, addrspace can also reference one of the address spaces defined in the datalayout string. addrspace "A" will use the alloca address space, addrspace "G" the default globals address space and addrspace "P" the program address space. The semantics of non-zero address spaces are target-specific. Memory access through a non-dereferenceable pointer is undefined behavior in any address space. If an object can be proven accessible through a pointer with a different address space, the access may be modified to use that address space.

Exceptions apply if the operation is volatile. See the opaque pointers document for more information. A vector type is a simple derived type that represents a vector of elements. Vector types are used when multiple primitive data are operated in parallel using a single instruction SIMD. A vector type requires a size number of elements , an underlying primitive data type, and a scalable property to represent vectors where the exact hardware vector length is unknown at compile time.

Vector types are considered first class. In general vector elements are laid out in memory in the same way as array types. Such an analogy works fine as long as the vector elements are byte sized. A bitcast from a vector type to a scalar integer type will see the elements being packed together without padding. The order in which elements are inserted in the integer depends on endianess. For little endian element zero is put in the least significant bits of the integer, and for big endian element zero is put in the most significant bits.

The number of elements is a constant integer value larger than 0; elementtype may be any integer, floating-point or pointer type. Vectors of size zero are not allowed. For scalable vectors, the total number of elements is a constant multiple called vscale of the specified number of elements; vscale is a positive integer that is unknown at compile time and the same hardware-dependent constant for all scalable vectors at run time. The size of a specific scalable vector type is thus constant within IR, even if the exact size in bytes cannot be determined until run time.

The token type is used when a value is associated with an instruction but all uses of the value must not attempt to introspect or obscure it. As such, it is not appropriate to have a phi or select of type token.

The metadata type represents embedded metadata. No derived types may be created from metadata except for function arguments. Aggregate Types are a subset of derived types that can contain multiple member types. Arrays and structs are aggregate types. Vectors are not considered to be aggregate types. The array type is a very simple derived type that arranges elements sequentially in memory. The array type requires a size number of elements and an underlying data type.

The number of elements is a constant integer value; elementtype may be any type with a size. There is no restriction on indexing beyond the end of the array implied by a static type though there are restrictions on indexing beyond the bounds of an allocated object in some cases. The structure type is used to represent a collection of data members together in memory.

The elements of a structure may be any type that has a size. In non-packed structs, padding between field types is inserted as defined by the DataLayout string in the module, which is required to match what the underlying code generator expects. A literal structure is defined inline with other types e. Literal types are uniqued by their contents and can never be recursive or opaque since there is no way to write one.

Identified types can be recursive, can be opaqued, and are never uniqued. Opaque structure types are used to represent structure types that do not have a body specified. This corresponds for example to the C notion of a forward declared structure.

LLVM has several different basic types of constants. This section describes them all and their syntax. The one non-intuitive notation for constants is the hexadecimal form of floating-point constants.

The only time hexadecimal floating-point constants are required and the only time that they are generated by the disassembler is when a floating-point constant must be emitted but it cannot be represented as a decimal floating-point number in a reasonable number of digits. When using the hexadecimal form, constants of types bfloat, half, float, and double are represented using the digit form shown above which matches the IEEE representation for double ; bfloat, half and float values must, however, be exactly representable as bfloat, IEEE half, and IEEE single precision respectively.

Hexadecimal format is always used for long double, and there are three forms of long double. The bit format used by x86 is represented as 0xK followed by 20 hexadecimal digits.

The bit format used by PowerPC two adjacent doubles is represented by 0xM followed by 32 hexadecimal digits. The IEEE bit format is represented by 0xL followed by 32 hexadecimal digits. Long doubles will only work if they match the long double format on your target.

The IEEE bit format half precision is represented by 0xH followed by 4 hexadecimal digits. The bfloat bit format is represented by 0xR followed by 4 hexadecimal digits. All hexadecimal formats are big-endian sign bit at the left. Complex constants are a potentially recursive combination of simple constants and smaller complex constants.

The addresses of global variables and functions are always implicitly valid link-time constants. These constants are explicitly referenced when the identifier for the global is used and always have pointer type.

For example, the following is a legal LLVM file:. Poison values are stronger than undef, and enable more optimizations. Undefined values are useful because they indicate to the compiler that the program is well defined no matter what value is used. This gives the compiler more freedom to optimize.

Here are some examples of potentially surprising transformations that are valid in pseudo IR :. This is safe because all of the output bits are affected by the undef bits. Any output bit can have a zero or one depending on the input bits. These logical operations have bits that are not always affected by the input. Instead, the value is logically read from arbitrary registers that happen to be around when needed, so the value is not necessarily consistent over time.

These examples show the crucial difference between an undefined value and undefined behavior. However, in the second example, we can make a more aggressive assumption: because the undef is allowed to be an arbitrary value, we are allowed to assume that it could be zero.

Since a divide by zero has undefined behavior , we are allowed to assume that the operation does not execute at all. This allows us to delete the divide and all code after it. A store of an undefined value can be assumed to not have any effect; we can assume that the value is overwritten with bits that happen to match what was already there. This argument is only valid if the stored value is provably not poison.

However, a store to an undefined location could clobber arbitrary memory, therefore, it has undefined behavior. Branching on an undefined value is undefined behavior. This explains optimizations that depend on branch conditions to construct predicates, such as Correlated Value Propagation and Global Value Numbering.

In case of switch instruction, the branch condition should be frozen, otherwise it is undefined behavior. A poison value is a result of an erroneous operation.

In order to facilitate speculative execution, many instructions do not invoke immediate undefined behavior when provided with illegal operands, and return a poison value instead. A notable exception is the select instruction.

Propagation of poison can be stopped with the freeze instruction. It is correct to replace a poison value with an undef value or any value of the type. This means that immediate undefined behavior occurs if a poison value is used as an instruction operand that has any values that trigger undefined behavior.

Notably this includes but is not limited to :. Given a program execution, a value is well defined if the value does not have an undef bit and is not poison in the execution. An aggregate value or vector is well defined if its elements are well defined. The result of freeze instruction is well defined regardless of its operand. Pointer equality tests between labels addresses results in undefined behavior — though, again, comparison against null is ok, and no label is equal to the null pointer.

This may be passed around as an opaque pointer sized value as long as the bits are not inspected. This allows ptrtoint and arithmetic to be performed on these values so long as the original value is reconstituted before the indirectbr instruction.

Finally, some targets may provide defined semantics when using the value as the operand to an inline assembly, but that is target specific. The resulting pointer has the same type as the underlying function. The resulting pointer is permitted, but not required, to be different from a pointer to the function, and it may have different values in different translation units.

These constants may be useful in low-level programs, such as operating system kernels, which need to refer to the actual function body. Constant expressions are used to allow expressions involving other constants to be used as constants.

Constant expressions may be of any first class type and may involve any LLVM operation that does not have side effects e. load and call are not supported. The following is the syntax for constant expressions:. LLVM supports inline assembler expressions as opposed to Module-Level Inline Assembly through the use of a special value. This value represents the inline assembler as a template string containing the instructions to emit , a list of operand constraints stored as a string , a flag that indicates whether or not the inline asm expression has side effects, and a flag indicating whether the function containing the asm needs to align its stack conservatively.

s file — and thus must contain assembly syntax known to LLVM. However, to be clear, the syntax of the template and constraint strings described here is not the same as the syntax accepted by GCC and Clang, and, while most constraint letters are passed through as-is by Clang, some get translated to other codes when converting from the C source to the LLVM assembly.

Inline assembler expressions may only be used as the callee operand of a call or an invoke instruction. Thus, typically we have:.

Inline asms with side effects not visible in the constraint list must be marked as having side effects. In some cases inline asms will contain code that will not work unless the stack is aligned in some way, such as calls or SSE instructions on x86, yet will not contain code that does that alignment within the asm.

Inline asms also support using non-standard assembly dialects. The assumed dialect is ATT. Currently, ATT and Intel are the only supported dialects. An example is:. The constraint list is a comma-separated string, each element containing one or more constraint codes. There are three different types of constraints, which are distinguished by a prefix symbol in front of the constraint code: Output, Input, and Clobber.

The constraints must always be given in that order: outputs first, then inputs, then clobbers. They cannot be intermingled. This indicates that the assembly will write to this operand, and the operand will then be made available as a return value of the asm expression. Output constraints do not consume an argument from the call instruction. Except, see below about indirect outputs. Normally, it is expected that no output locations are written to by the assembly expression until all of the inputs have been read.

As such, LLVM may assign the same register to an output and an input. If this is not safe e. Input constraints do not have a prefix — just the constraint codes. Each input constraint will consume one argument from the call instruction. It is not permitted for the asm to write to any input register or memory location unless that input is tied to an output. Note also that multiple inputs may all be assigned to the same register, if LLVM can determine that they necessarily all contain the same value.

In that case, no other input may share the same register as the input tied to the early-clobber even when the other input has the same value. You may only tie an input to an output which has a register constraint, not a memory constraint. Only a single input may be tied to an output. Firstly, the registers are not guaranteed to be consecutive. So, on those architectures that have instructions which operate on multiple consecutive instructions, this is not an appropriate way to support them.

the bit SparcV8 has a bit load, which instruction takes a single bit register. The hardware then loads into both the named register, and the next register. This feature of inline asm would not be useful to support that. A few of the targets provide a template string modifier allowing explicit access to the second register of a two-register operand e. On such an architecture, you can actually access the second allocated register yet, still, not any subsequent ones.

see the description of the A constraint on X86, which, despite existing only for use with this feature, is not really a good idea to use. This indicates that the asm will write to or read from the contents of an address provided as an input argument.

Note that in this way, indirect outputs act more like an input than an output: just like an input, they consume an argument of the call expression, rather than producing a return value.

This is most typically used for memory constraint, e. It is also possible to use an indirect register constraint, but only on output e. This will cause LLVM to allocate a register for an output value normally, and then, separately emit a store to the address provided as input, after the provided inline asm.

I would recommend not using it. Call arguments for indirect constraints must have pointer type and must specify the elementtype attribute to indicate the pointer element type. A clobber does not consume an input operand, nor generate an output.

Clobbers cannot use any of the general constraint code letters — they may use only explicit register constraints, e. Instead of consuming call arguments, label constraints consume indirect destination labels of callbr instructions.

Label constraints can only be used in conjunction with callbr and the number of label constraints must match the number of indirect destination labels in the callbr instruction. A Constraint Code is either a single letter e. A single constraint may include one or more than constraint code in it, leaving it up to LLVM to choose which one to use.

This is included mainly for compatibility with the translation of GCC inline asm coming from clang. There are two ways to specify alternatives, and either or both may be used in an inline asm constraint list:. Putting those together, you might have a two operand constraint string like "rm r,ri rm". This indicates that if operand 0 is r or m , then operand 1 may be one of r or i.

If operand 0 is r , then operand 1 may be one of r or m. But, operand 0 and 1 cannot both be of type m. However, the use of either of the alternatives features is NOT recommended, as LLVM is not able to make an intelligent choice about which one to use.

At the point it currently needs to choose, not enough information is available to do so in a smart way. And, if given multiple registers, or multiple register classes, it will simply choose the first one. The constraint codes are, in general, expected to behave the same way they do in GCC. A mismatch in behavior between LLVM and GCC likely indicates a bug in LLVM.

The modifiers are, in general, expected to behave the same way they do in GCC. SystemZ implements only n , and does not support any of the other target-independent modifiers. If present, the code generator will use the integer as the location cookie value when report errors through the LLVMContext error reporting mechanisms. This allows a front-end to correlate backend errors that occur with inline asm back to the source code that produced it.

It is up to the front-end to make sense of the magic numbers it places in the IR. If the MDNode contains multiple constants, the code generator will use the one that corresponds to the line of the asm that the error occurs on.

LLVM IR allows metadata to be attached to instructions and global objects in the program that can convey extra information about the code to the optimizers and code generator. One example application of metadata is source-level debug information. There are two metadata primitives: strings and nodes. Metadata does not have a type, and is not a value. If referenced from a call instruction, it uses the metadata type. A metadata string is a string surrounded by double quotes.

Metadata nodes are represented with notation similar to structure constants a comma separated list of elements, surrounded by braces and preceded by an exclamation point. Metadata nodes can have any values as their operand. They can also occur when transformations cause uniquing collisions when metadata operands change.

A named metadata is a collection of metadata nodes, which can be looked up in the module symbol table. Metadata can be used as function arguments.

Here the llvm. value intrinsic is using three metadata arguments:. Metadata can be attached to an instruction. Here metadata! dbg identifier:. Metadata can also be attached to a function or a global variable. Unlike instructions, global objects functions and global variables may have multiple metadata attachments with the same identifier. Currently there is an exception for metadata attachment to globals for!

type and! Metadata attached to a module using named metadata may not be dropped, with the exception of debug metadata named metadata with the name! More information about specific metadata nodes recognized by the optimizers and code generator is found below.

Specialized metadata nodes are custom data structures in metadata as opposed to generic tuples. Their fields are labelled, and can be specified in any order. DICompileUnit nodes represent a compile unit. The enums: , retainedTypes: , globals: , imports: and macros: fields are tuples containing the debug info to be emitted along with the compile unit, regardless of code optimizations some nodes are only emitted if there are references to them from instructions.

The debugInfoForProfiling: field is a boolean indicating whether or not line-table discriminators are updated to provide more-accurate debug info for profiling results. Compile unit descriptors provide the root scope for objects declared in a specific compilation unit. File descriptors are defined using this scope.

These descriptors are collected by a named metadata node! They keep track of global variables, type information, and imported entities declarations and namespaces. DIFile nodes represent files. The filename: can include slashes. Files are sometimes used in scope: fields, and are the only valid target for file: fields. DIBasicType nodes represent primitive types, such as int , bool and float.

The encoding: describes the details of the type. DISubroutineType nodes represent subroutine types. Their types: field refers to a tuple; the first operand is the return type, while the rest are the types of the formal arguments in order. DIDerivedType nodes represent types derived from other types, such as qualified types. The following tag: values are valid:. The type of the member is the baseType:.

If the composite type has an ODR identifier: and does not set flags: DIFwdDecl , then the member is uniqued based only on its name: and scope:. DICompositeType nodes represent types composed of other types, like structures and unions. elements: points to a tuple of the composed types.

If the source language supports ODR, the identifier: field gives the unique identifier used for type merging between modules. When specified, subprogram declarations and member derived types that reference the ODR-type in their scope: change uniquing rules.

For a given identifier: , there should only be a single composite type that does not have flags: DIFlagFwdDecl set. LLVM tools that link modules together will unique such definitions at parse time via the identifier: field, even if the nodes are distinct. The DIFlagVector flag to flags: indicates that an array type is a native packed vector. This is only supported for array types, particularly to describe Fortran arrays, which have an array descriptor in addition to the array data.

Alternatively it can also be DIVariable which has the address of the actual raw data. The Fortran language supports pointer arrays which can be attached to actual arrays, this attachment between pointer and pointee is called association. The optional associated is a DIExpression that describes whether the pointer array is currently associated. The optional allocated is a DIExpression that describes whether the allocatable array is currently allocated.

The optional rank is a DIExpression that describes the rank number of dimensions of fortran assumed rank array rank is known at runtime. All enumeration type descriptors are collected in the enums: field of the compile unit. DITemplateTypeParameter nodes represent type parameters to generic source language constructs. They are used optionally in DICompositeType and DISubprogram templateParams: fields. DITemplateValueParameter nodes represent value parameters to generic source language constructs.

DINamespace nodes represent namespaces in the source language. DIGlobalVariable nodes represent global variables in the source language. DIGlobalVariableExpression nodes tie a DIGlobalVariable together with a DIExpression. All global variable expressions should be referenced by the globals: field of a compile unit. DISubprogram nodes represent functions from the source language. A distinct DISubprogram may be attached to a function definition using! dbg metadata.

A unique DISubprogram may be attached to a function declaration used for call site debug info. The retainedNodes: field is a list of variables and labels that must be retained, even if their IR counterparts are optimized out of the IR. The type: field must point at an DISubroutineType.

When isDefinition: false , subprograms describe a declaration in the type tree as opposed to a definition of a function. If the scope is a composite type with an ODR identifier: and that does not set flags: DIFwdDecl , then the subprogram declaration is uniqued based only on its linkageName: and scope:.

DILexicalBlock nodes describe nested blocks within a subprogram. The line number and column numbers are used to distinguish two lexical blocks at same depth.

They are valid targets for scope: fields. Usually lexical blocks are distinct to prevent node merging based on operands. DILexicalBlockFile nodes are used to discriminate between sections of a lexical block.

The file: field can be changed to indicate textual inclusion, or the discriminator: field can be used to discriminate between control flow within a single block in the source language. DILocation nodes represent source debug locations.

The scope: field is mandatory, and points at an DILexicalBlockFile , an DILexicalBlock , or an DISubprogram. DILocalVariable nodes represent local variables in the source language. If the arg: field is set to non-zero, then this variable is a subprogram parameter, and it will be included in the retainedNodes: field of its DISubprogram.

DIExpression nodes represent expressions that are inspired by the DWARF expression language. They are used in debug intrinsics such as llvm. declare and llvm. value to describe how the referenced LLVM variable relates to the source language variable. The memory tag is derived from the given tag offset in an implementation-defined manner. The entry at the top of the stack is treated as an address.

The second stack entry is treated as an address space identifier. For example,! Due to framework limitations N can currently only be 1. The operation is introduced by the LiveDebugValues pass, which applies it only to function parameters that are unmodified throughout the function.

Support is limited to simple register location descriptions, or as indirect locations e. The opcode is only generated by the AsmPrinter pass to describe call site parameter value which requires an expression over two registers.

This opcode can be used to calculate bounds of fortran allocatable array which has array descriptors. This opcode can be used to calculate bounds of fortran assumed rank array which has rank known at run time and current dimension number is implicitly first element of the stack. It can be used to represent pointer variables which are optimized out but the value it points to is known.

DWARF specifies three kinds of simple location descriptions: Register, memory, and implicit location descriptions. Note that a location description is defined over certain ranges of a program, i. e the location of a variable may change over the course of the program. A llvm. addr or llvm. declare intrinsic describes an indirect value the address of a source variable.

The first operand of the intrinsic must be an address of some kind.

This document is a reference manual for the LLVM assembly language. It is the common code representation used throughout all phases of the LLVM compilation strategy. The LLVM code representation is designed to be used in three different forms: as an in-memory compiler IR, as an on-disk bitcode representation suitable for fast loading by a Just-In-Time compiler , and as a human readable assembly language representation.

This allows LLVM to provide a powerful intermediate representation for efficient compiler transformations and analysis, while providing a natural means to debug and visualize the transformations. The three different forms of LLVM are all equivalent. This document describes the human readable representation and notation. The LLVM representation aims to be light-weight and low-level while being expressive, typed, and extensible at the same time.

By providing type information, LLVM can be used as the target of optimizations: for example, through pointer analysis, it can be proven that a C automatic variable is never accessed outside of the current function, allowing it to be promoted to a simple SSA value instead of a memory location. For example, the following instruction is syntactically okay, but not well formed:. The LLVM infrastructure provides a verification pass that may be used to verify that an LLVM module is well formed.

This pass is automatically run by the parser after parsing input assembly and by the optimizer before it outputs bitcode. The violations pointed out by the verifier pass indicate bugs in transformation passes or input to the parser.

LLVM identifiers come in two basic types: global and local. Global identifiers functions, global variables begin with the ' ' character. Additionally, there are three different formats for identifiers, for different purposes:.

Additionally, unnamed identifiers allow a compiler to quickly come up with a temporary variable without having to avoid symbol table conflicts. Reserved words in LLVM are very similar to reserved words in other languages. It also shows a convention that we follow in this document.

When demonstrating instructions, we will follow an instruction with a comment that defines the type and name of value produced. Each module consists of functions, global variables, and symbol table entries. Modules may be combined together with the LLVM linker, which merges function and global variable definitions, resolves forward declarations, and merges symbol table entries.

In general, a module is made up of a list of global values where both functions and global variables are global values. Global values are represented by a pointer to a memory location in this case, a pointer to an array of char, and a pointer to a function , and have one of the following linkage types.

When two global variables with appending linkage are linked together, the two global arrays are appended together. o files are linked. o files, so it can only be used for variables like llvm. LLVM functions , calls and invokes can all have an optional calling convention specified for the call.

The following calling conventions are supported by LLVM, and more may be added in the future:. This calling convention has been implemented specifically for use by the Glasgow Haskell Compiler GHC. It passes everything in registers, going to extremes to achieve this by disabling callee save registers.

This calling convention should not be used lightly but only for specific situations such as an alternative to the register pinning performance technique often used when implementing functional programming languages. At the moment only X86 supports this convention and it has the following limitations:.

This calling convention supports tail call optimization but requires both the caller and callee are using it. This calling convention attempts to make the code in the caller as unintrusive as possible. This alleviates the burden of saving and recovering a large register set before and after the call in the caller. If the arguments are passed in callee-saved registers, then they will be preserved by the callee across the call.

The idea behind this convention is to support calls to runtime functions that have a hot path and a cold path. This calling convention will be used by a future version of the ObjectiveC runtime and should therefore still be considered experimental at this time. Although this convention was created to optimize certain runtime calls to the ObjectiveC runtime, it is not limited to this runtime and might be used by other runtimes in the future too.

The current implementation only supports X, but the intention is to support more architectures in the future. This calling convention attempts to make the code in the caller even less intrusive than the PreserveMost calling convention.

This removes the burden of saving and recovering a large register set before and after the call in the caller. This calling convention, like the PreserveMost calling convention, will be used by a future version of the ObjectiveC runtime and should be considered experimental at this time.

The access function generally has an entry block, an exit block and an initialization block that is run at the first time. The entry and exit blocks can access a few TLS IR variables, each access will be lowered to a platform-specific sequence. This calling convention aims to minimize overhead in the caller by preserving as many registers as possible all the registers that are preserved on the fast path, composed of the entry and exit blocks. This calling convention is used for the Control Flow Guard check function, calls to which can be inserted before indirect calls to check that the call target is a valid function address.

The check function has no return value, but it will trigger an OS-level error if the address is not a valid target. The set of registers preserved by the check function, and the register containing the target address are architecture-specific. A symbol with internal or private linkage must have default visibility.

A symbol with internal or private linkage cannot have a DLL storage class. Not all targets support thread-local variables. Optionally, a TLS model may be specified:.

The models correspond to the ELF TLS models; see ELF Handling For Thread-Local Storage for more information on under which circumstances the different models may be used. The target may choose a different TLS model if the specified model is not supported, or if a better choice of model can be made.

A model can also be specified in an alias, but then it only governs how the alias is accessed. It will not have any effect in the aliasee. For platforms without linker support of ELF TLS model, the -femulated-tls flag can be used to generate GCC compatible emulated TLS code. Global variables, functions and aliases may have an optional runtime preemption specifier. Literal types are uniqued structurally, but identified types are never uniqued.

An opaque structural type can also be used to forward declare a type that is not yet available. Prior to the LLVM 3. Only literal types are uniqued in recent versions of LLVM. Note: non-integral pointer types are a work in progress, and they should be considered experimental at this time. Non-integral pointer types represent pointers that have an unspecified bitwise representation; that is, the integral representation may be target dependent or unstable not backed by a fixed integer.

inttoptr and ptrtoint instructions have the same semantics as for integral i. normal pointers in that they convert integers to and from corresponding pointer types, but there are additional implications to be aware of.

Because the bit-representation of a non-integral pointer may not be stable, two identical casts of the same operand may or may not return the same value. Said differently, the conversion to or from the non-integral type depends on environmental state in an implementation defined manner. If the frontend wishes to observe a particular value following a cast, the generated IR must fence with the underlying environment in an implementation defined manner. In practice, this tends to require noinline routines for such operations.

From the perspective of the optimizer, inttoptr and ptrtoint for non-integral types are analogous to ones on integral types with one key exception: the optimizer may not, in general, insert new dynamic occurrences of such casts.

If a new cast is inserted, the optimizer would need to either ensure that a all possible values are valid, or b appropriate fencing is inserted.

Global variables can optionally specify a linkage type. Either global variable definitions or declarations may have an explicit section to be placed in and may have an optional explicit alignment specified. If there is a mismatch between the explicit or inferred section information for the variable declaration and its definition the resulting behavior is undefined.

A variable may be defined as a global constant , which indicates that the contents of the variable will never be modified enabling better optimization, allowing the global data to be placed in the read-only section of an executable, etc. Note that variables that need runtime initialization cannot be marked constant as there is a store to the variable.

LLVM explicitly allows declarations of global variables to be marked constant, even if the final definition of the global is not. As SSA values, global variables define pointer values that are in scope i. they dominate all basic blocks in the program. Constants marked like this can be merged with other constants if they have the same initializer. A global variable may be declared to reside in a target-specific numbered address space.

The default address space is zero. The address space qualifier must precede any other attributes. LLVM allows an explicit section to be specified for globals. If the target supports it, it will emit globals to the section specified.

Additionally, the global can placed in a comdat if the target has the necessary support. External declarations may have an explicit section specified. Section information is retained in LLVM IR for targets that make use of this information.

Attaching section information to an external declaration is an assertion that its definition is located in the specified section. If the definition is located in a different section, the behavior is undefined. By default, global initializers are optimized by assuming that global variables defined within the module are not modified from their initial values before the start of the global initializer. This is true even for variables potentially accessible from outside the module, including those with external linkage or appearing in llvm.

used or dllexported variables. An explicit alignment may be specified for a global, which must be a power of 2. If not present, or if the alignment is set to zero, the alignment of the global is set by the target to whatever it feels convenient.

If an explicit alignment is specified, the global is forced to have exactly that alignment. Targets and optimizers are not allowed to over-align the global if the global has an assigned section.

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Large expressions slow the analyzer. In general, a module is made up of a list of global values where both functions and global variables are global values. This includes options such as -freg-struct-return and -fpcc-struct-return. Does not affect optimization of local data. The most professional and efficient platform for binary options trading. Californians are much more pessimistic about the direction of the country than they are about the direction of the state. When two global variables with appending linkage are linked together, the two global arrays are appended together.

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